Heavy snowfall and extreme cold can immobilize an entire region. Even areas that normally experience mild
winters can be hit with a major snowstorm or extreme cold. Winter storms can result in flooding, storm surge,
closed highways, blocked roads, downed power lines and hypothermia.
Know Your Winter Storm and Extreme Cold Terms
Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify a winter storm hazard:
- Freezing Rain - Rain that freezes when it hits the ground,
creating a coating of ice on roads, walkways, trees, and power lines.
- Sleet - Rain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the
ground. Sleet also causes moisture on roads to freeze and become slippery.
- Winter Storm Watch - A winter storm is possible in your area.
Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for more information.
- Winter Storm Warning - A winter storm is occurring or will
soon occur in your area.
- Blizzard Warning - Sustained winds or frequent gusts to 35
miles per hour or greater and considerable amounts of falling or blowing snow (reducing visibility to less than
a quarter mile) are expected to prevail for a period of three hours or longer.
- Frost/Freeze Warning - Below freezing temperatures are
Before Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
Add the following supplies to your disaster supplies kit:
- Rock salt to melt ice on walkways
- Sand to improve traction
- Snow shovels and other snow removal equipment.
Prepare your home and family
- Prepare for possible isolation in your home by having sufficient heating fuel; regular fuel sources may be
cut off. For example, store a good supply of dry, seasoned wood for your fireplace or wood-burning stove.
- Winterize your home to extend the life of your fuel supply by insulating walls and attics, caulking and
weather-stripping doors and windows, and installing storm windows or covering windows with plastic.
- Winterize your house, barn, shed or any other structure that may provide shelter for your family,
neighbors, livestock or equipment. Clear rain gutters; repair roof leaks and cut away tree branches that could
fall on a house or other structure during a storm.
- Insulate pipes with insulation or newspapers and plastic and allow faucets to drip a little during cold
weather to avoid freezing.
- Keep fire extinguishers on hand, and make sure everyone in your house knows how to use them. House fires
pose an additional risk, as more people turn to alternate heating sources without taking the necessary safety
- Learn how to shut off water valves (in case a pipe bursts).
- Know ahead of time what you should do to help elderly or disabled friends, neighbors or employees.
- Hire a contractor to check the structural ability of the roof to sustain unusually heavy weight from the
accumulation of snow - or water, if drains on flat roofs do not work.
Prepare your car
- Check or have a mechanic check the following items on your car:
- Antifreeze levels - ensure they are sufficient to avoid freezing.
- Battery and ignition system - should be in top condition and battery terminals should be
- Brakes - check for wear and fluid levels.
- Exhaust system - check for leaks and crimped pipes andrepair or replace as necessary. Carbon
monoxide is deadly and usually gives no warning.
- Fuel and air filters - replace and keep water out of the system by using additives and maintaining
a full tank of gas.
- Heater and defroster - ensure they work properly.
- Lights and flashing hazard lights - check for serviceability.
Oil - check for level and weight. Heavier oils congeal more at low temperatures and do not lubricate as
- Thermostat - ensure it works properly.
- Windshield wiper equipment - repair any problems and maintain proper washer fluid level.
- Install good winter tires. Make sure the tires have adequate tread. All-weather radials are usually
adequate for most winter conditions. However, some jurisdictions require that to drive on their roads, vehicles
must be equipped with chains or snow tires with studs.
- Maintain at least a half tank of gas during the winter season.
- Place a winter emergency kit in each car that includes:
- a shovel
- windshield scraper and small broom
- battery powered radio
- extra batteries
- snack food
- extra hats, socks and mittens
- First aid kit with pocket knife
- Necessary medications
- tow chain or rope
- road salt and sand
- booster cables
- emergency flares
- fluorescent distress flag
Dress for the Weather
- Wear several layers of loose fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than one layer of heavy clothing.
The outer garments should be tightly woven and water repellent.
- Wear mittens, which are warmer than gloves.
- Wear a hat.
- Cover your mouth with a scarf to protect your lungs.
During a Winter Storm
- Listen to your radio, television, or NOAA Weather Radio for weather reports and emergency information.
- Eat regularly and drink ample fluids, but avoid caffeine and alcohol.
- Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your residence cooler than normal. Temporarily close off heat to
- If the pipes freeze, remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and wrap pipes in rags. Completely open
all faucets and pour hot water over the pipes, starting where they were most exposed to the cold (or where the
cold was most likely to penetrate).
- Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters
outside and keep them at least three feet from flammable objects.
If you are outdoors:
- Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow. Overexertion can bring on a heart attack—a major cause of death in
the winter. If you must shovel snow, stretch before going outside.
- Cover your mouth. Protect your lungs from extremely cold air by covering your mouth when outdoors. Try not
to speak unless absolutely necessary.
- Keep dry. Change wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. Wet clothing loses all of its
insulating value and transmits heat rapidly.
- Watch for signs of frostbite. These include loss of feeling and white or pale appearance in extremities
such as fingers, toes, ear lobes, and the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected, get medical help
- Watch for signs of hypothermia. These include uncontrollable shivering, memory loss, disorientation,
incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness, and apparent exhaustion.
- If symptoms of hypothermia are detected:
- get the victim to a warm location
remove wet clothing
- put the person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket
- warm the center of the body first
give warm, non-alcoholic or non-caffeinated beverages if the victim is conscious
- get medical help as soon as possible.
If you are driving:
- Drive only if it is absolutely necessary. If you must drive, consider the following:
- Travel in the day, don’t travel alone, and keep others informed of your schedule.
- Stay on main roads; avoid back road shortcuts.
- If a blizzard traps you in the car:
- Pull off the highway. Turn on hazard lights and hang a distress flag from the radio antenna or
- Remain in your vehicle where rescuers are most likely to find you. Do not set out on foot unless
you can see a building close by where you know you can take shelter. Be careful; distances are
distorted by blowing snow. A building may seem close, but be too far to walk to in deep snow.
- Run the engine and heater about 10 minutes each hour to keep warm. When the engine is running, open
a downwind window slightly for ventilation and periodically clear snow from the exhaust pipe. This will
protect you from possible carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Exercise to maintain body heat, but avoid overexertion. In extreme cold, use road maps, seat
covers, and floor mats for insulation. Huddle with passengers and use your coat for a blanket.
- Take turns sleeping. One person should be awake at all times to look for rescue crews.
- Drink fluids to avoid dehydration.
- Be careful not to waste battery power. Balance electrical energy needs - the use of lights, heat,
and radio - with supply.
- Turn on the inside light at night so work crews or rescuers can see you.
- If stranded in a remote area, stomp large block letters in an open area spelling out HELP or SOS
and line with rocks or tree limbs to attract the attention of rescue personnel who may be surveying the
area by airplane.
- Leave the car and proceed on foot - if necessary - once the blizzard passes.
Much of the info on this page was taken from FEMA's web site which can be referenced at: http://www.fema.gov/hazard/winter/index.shtm and http://www.fema.gov/hazard/winter/wi_terms.shtm and
http://www.fema.gov/hazard/winter/wi_before.shtm and http://www.fema.gov/hazard/winter/wi_during.shtm.